Location is the most significant reference that we use in our daily life. Almost every information that we gathered is based on location, and this location, in technical terms, refers to the geographical surface of the earth. For example, suppose researchers have discovered a rare plant growing in four different places. Simultaneously, the next thing that these researchers will do is find the exact geographical location of these four different places. Similarly, this will include the elevation point, temperature of the place, type of soil, amount of rain that the area receives every year, etc. all this information will give them a clearer picture of what all circumstances are required for the successful growth of this rare plant. Based on the analysis, scientists will look for all other locations having the same geographical features. GIS or Geographic Information System is behind these entire tasks.
What is GIS?
A geographic information system is a technology that helps in understanding the geographical features of a unique location. Similarly, it helps in analyzing the landscape from which experts collect data. Users then store the information in the GIS database, which later on they use for different decision-making purposes. In short, GIS helps in understanding the surface of the earth on which we are living.
Uses of GIS Data
The geographic information system has multiple uses. For any business type, it acts as a powerful tool in the process of decision-making. Various industries have admitted geographic information systems to be the most helpful gadget for achieving success. The multiple ways in which geographic information system data is used are:
Helps in creating maps
The very first use of the geographic information system is to create Maps. With the latest technology today, researchers can create 3D Maps. The best example is Google Maps and Bing map.
Acts as an essential tool in the process of urban planning
GIS is the only advanced technology that helps the government at the time of urban planning. In the 19th century, the government first implemented a GIS system in urban planning to safeguard the health of the common public by separating their residential area from the industrial sectors.
Helps in transportation planning
With the help of the GIS system, it becomes easy for the government and designers to plan the perfect place for building up a new road or rail route.
Helps in agricultural planning
We all know that not every place is suitable for growing crops. Different food crops require other geographical circumstances. With the help of GIS technology, the government can increase food production by inculcating efficient farming techniques in those places that are best suited for it.
Helps at the time of disaster management
With the help of GIS technology, rescue teams can locate the most affected area and arrange immediate rescue efforts. With GIS, it becomes easy for the government to estimate the amount of damage caused.
Helps in traffic management
With the help of GIS technology, it becomes easy for researchers to identify accident-prone areas. This helps the government in taking decisions regarding the method that they can adopt to reduce such accidents. This is a great way to improve road safety measures.
What are the components of a geographic information system?
GIS has three main components. They are data, hardware, and software.
The geographic information system has two main data types they are:
Vector is the additional information to the usual information related to a geographical landscape. It is the coordinates of that location that experts use to point out the exact feature. Vector is subdivided into 3 that is Polygon data, line data, and point data.
This data is best suited for aerial images, topographic images old satellite images. If you look at the image, it will appear like a grid of pixels. Each of these pixels contains a specific value that describes the feature of the object. However, the resolution may vary from picture to picture, depending on the quality of the photograph.
Mathematics is the key component in the process of spatial analysis. Therefore, software like ArcGIS and QGIS Are the backbone of GIS software. This helps in the calculation involved while understanding the earth landscape.
For any technology, the central processing unit is the brain of everything. Therefore, any device like mobile phones, high-tech computers, graphic processing cards, storage area, monitors, and even serve words act as hardware for the GIS software.